MATERIALS / WORKSHOP PAPERS

Scientific papers are presented after each keynote-session in Scientific tracks (1 & 2). There will be also printed abstract collections available on the venue.

 

 

Day 1: Wednesday 1 October
 

Scientific track 1
Scientific track 2


 

Day 2: Thursday 2 October


Scientific track 1 (am)


Scientific track 1 (pm)

Scientific track 2 (am)

Scientific track 2 (pm)

 

 

 


DAY 1:  Scientific track 1

Chair: Professor Sirkka Heinonen, Finland Futures Research Centre


 

Juha Saukkonen
Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences, juha.saukkonen@jamk.fi
 
On the Tracks of Creative Disruption - Value Chain Challenges and Opportunities for Innovative Enterprises

The paper aims at bridging the most important theories of Innovation (Teece-model, Disruptive Innovation, Henderson-Clark model, Technology-Adoption-Life-Cycle (TALC)-model etc.) to the up-to-date analysis on the real-life growth ambitions and obstacles/enablers as reported in GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) and "Fast-500" reports by Deloitte. A proposal concerning the directions the teaching/coaching for growth-oriented entreprises should take is presented as a summary of the findings in the paper.

 

Juha Saukkonen acts as a lecturer of Management in the School of Business Amistaration of Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences. He also coordinates the Specialisation programme Hi-Tech Management (25 ECTS) on the undergraduate level in the school. The recent research interests include: Application of Delphi-methodology as a tool of modelling Value System-evolution of industries;  Emerging changes in the media industry Value Constellation System; Innovation theories as a tool to predict and explain the success and non-succeess of Innovations.

 


Antti Ainamo
IASM, University of Turku, aainamo@utu.fi

Managing for the Future: Strategic Design, Culture & Politics

In order to solve a design problem or take advantage of a market opportunity when it comes to new products or services, it is helpful to have a rich understanding of the issues at hand. A good picture of the design problem or opportunity is useful for probing more thoroughly into the possible nature and sources of the issues and the range of approaches. It is easy to skip this analysis in favor of familiar approaches. People often summarize a design problem in a way that suggests a singular source, such as 'The main problem we have here is a lack of creativity'. They leap into into that line of inquiry and start looking for ways to 'increase creativity'. However, if they had a richer picture of the organization, they might learn that the problem or advantage actually lie elsewhere, perhaps to do with the design-manufacturing or the design-marketing inteface, or the relationship with suppliers, or the way that overtime compensation is paid. It is helpful to understand that one can look at a design proble or market opportunity in a new product service in many ways and that many illuminating features can be observed. Different individuals weill tend to focus on one set of problems or issuers over others. In fact, this can be the root of the design problem or at the heart of failing to exploit a market opportunity. Consider the often-told parable of the three blind men and an elephant, which serves to remind us of the importance of the benefits of finding a common way of making sense of multiple individual viewpoints. The paper uses the parable of the three blind men and the elephant to highlight why single-minded viewpoints are incomplete, resistant to change and innovation, and lead astray. The paper builds a framework for coming up with more complete, more future-oriented, and more robust strategies than those enabled by single-minded viewpoints. Antti Ainamo biography Antti Ainamo’s research interests are in design, journalism, other professional business services, fashion, networks, projects, strategy, and globalization. His publications include articles in Business Strategy Review, Organization Science, The Design Journal, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, and Human Relations, as well as a book with Kluwer/Springer. He is professor of Innovation, technology and science policy at the Department of Sociology at the University of Turku, where he heads the Institutions and Social Mechanisms programme. He is docent at the University of Art and Design Helsinki, Department of Industrial and Strategic Design of the University of Art and Design Helsinki, as well as at the Department of Marketing and Management of the Helsinki School of Economics. He is among the internationally most cited authors in all of the three academic departments in which he is affiliated. His working experience is mostly in consulting and with the media.

 

Antti Ainamo's research interests are in design, journalism, other professional business services, fashion, networks, projects, strategy, and globalization. His publications include articles in Business Strategy Review, Organization Science, The Design Journal, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, and Human Relations, as well as a book with Kluwer/Springer. At the University of Turku, he is professor of Innovation, technology and science policy at the Department of Sociology, at which university he heads the Institutions and Social Mechanisms programme. He is docent at the University of Art and Design Helsinki, Department of Industrial and Strategic Design , as well as at the Helsinki School of Economics Department of Marketing and Management. He is among the internationally most cited authors in all of the three academic departments in which he is affiliated. His working experience includes Jaakko Pyry Consulting and what is now Amer Sporting Goods.

 


Raija Leskinen
Helsinki School of Economics, raija.leskinen@kolumbus.fi

The Learning and Innovation Process of Entrepreneurial Network

Interest in networks of micro entrepreneurs has increased in recent years (Meyer et al. 1997; Osborn and Hagedoorn, 1997; Hitt & Ireland, 2000). Micro entrepreneurs mainly operate alone and therefore have limited resources at their disposal. It is also difficult for them to grow because of shortage of resources. Decision to build an entrepreneur´s network is usually based on the need of different kind of additional resources, which entrepreneurs do not have or resources are not adequate or not enough. For example product and service development in micro enterprises is often difficult to organize because of the lack of the resources and therefore it is difficult to maintain the competitiveness on the market. Competitive advantage can be created by developing and using unique combination of interfirm cooperative arrangements, e.g., networks, strategic alliances, and joint ventures (Dyer and Singh, 1998). Entrepreneurial networks can create synergistic or other benefits for the participants (Osborn & Hagedoorn, 1997; Gomes-Casseres, 1996). Experiences often show disappointments or failures in the entrepreneurial network process. The main reasons for failure are found in people-related and social issues. These include misunderstandings, restructured responsibilities, and lack of confidence between entrepreneurs. Also, when entrepreneurs are seeking its own self-interest at the expense of others (Williamson 1985) , a network power may fail to fulfill his or her commitments and/or might withhold or distort information. Value often appears to be created in the network itself, through the diversity of entrepreneurs and enterprises. However, there is little or no research on the diverse capabilities and potential of the network from the single entrepreneur´s point of view. Therefore I am interested in the diverse innovation and learning capabilities and potential that are known but need more in-depth research on entrepreneurial networks (Hitt & Ireland, 2000). The question arises: How can we create more innovation and learning in an entrepreneurial network by better understanding the diversity in learning and working styles of entrepreneurs in the network? These issues remain often under the surface during the daily operations of the network, even if they can be success drivers as well as success breakers. Due to their delicate nature they most likely emerge later on, often after the network is successfully in operation. In this study networks are built between firms of similar size that operate on the product or service market. By focusing on the diverse capabilities of entrepreneurs we hope to be able to reveal the personal and social characteristics of participants, which might also affect the success or failure of the networks. We are interested in the financial and social benefits that the entrepreneurs might pursue during the innovation and learning process of entrepreneurial network. By social benefits we mean, for example, that some entrepreneurs might want to stick together to empower them¬selves in an entrepreneurs´ network.

 

MS Raija Leskinen is PhD Student in the Department Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management of Helsinki School of Economics. Her research topic contributes theoretically and empirically to the field of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial networks. The research is focused into the micro entrepreneurial network process and the learning and innovation potential that are known. More in depth research on entrepreneurial networks is needed. Her presentation in the congress will contribute to the modeling of the innovation and learning process in the entrepreneurial network.

 


Martin Rhisiart
University of Glamorgan, Centre for Research in Futures and Innovation (CRI-FI), martinrhisiart@yahoo.co.uk

Frameworks for Futures-Oriented Innovation within Companies

Many large companies have developed commercially successful innovation processes that are futures oriented – in various forms and to varying degrees. Philips, Deutsche Bank, Arup and Shell, to name but a few examples, all have sophisticated processes to assist them in understanding the changing nature of their business environment and in taking advantage of emerging opportunities in the market. Hamel (2007) outlines five key design rules for building companies that are ‘fit for the future’: variety, flexibility, activism, meaning and serendipity’; these constitute the ‘new DNA’ of management. In designing innovative companies ready for the future, these are fundamental organisational principles. How do these organisational principles fit with recent innovation paradigms within companies that are systemic and tools-based? New product development (NPD) processes are embedded within most large companies and in many small and medium-sized companies. Cooper’s Stage-Gate model is widely used (70 per cent of leading US product development companies have some type of stage-gate process according to PDMA survey). An Arthur D. Little survey (2005) found that NPD productivity in the top performing company is five times greater than in the average company. Work by Baghai, Coley and White (2000), amongst others, offers a framework for engendering (futures) horizons within NPD processes. The paper will discuss how futures-oriented innovation processes, based on concepts of sensemaking and complexity can enable companies to improve decision-making and NPD processes. It will also explore how these processes can be constructed for SMEs as well as large companies.

 


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DAY 1:  Scientific track 2

Chair: Director Juha Kaskinen, Finland Futures Research Centre


 

Irma Mäkäräinen-Suni
Lappeenranta University of Technology, irma.makarainen-suni@haaga-helia.fi

Strategic Communities, Innovation and Living Labs

Strategic community is a concept introduced by Kodama (2006) for knowledge building communities within large companies. Strategic communities is applied for instance in cases where enterprises are in a management environment beset by numerous uncertainties, where predictions are difficult and management is searching for valid strategies. Strategic community is based on the concept of ba, a shared space for emerging relationships that serves as a foundation for knowledge creation (Nonaka et al. 2000) and the concept of communities of practice (Wenger 2000). According to Kodama when the knowledge base of an industry is both complex and spending, and the sources of expertise are broadly dispersed, the locus of innovation will be found in networks of inter-organizational learning rather than in individual firms. It is interesting to study the concept of strategic communities a little further and use the concept as an approach to study Living Lab innovation environment. Living Lab is defined as innovation environment in which technology is given shape in real life contexts and in which users are considered co-creators involved in all of the product development lifecycle.

 


Jari Metsämuuronen
The Finnish National Board of Education, jari.metsamuuronen@oph.fi      

 

Rising trends in educational research on the basis of ERIC database      

 

What are the main driving themes in educational research literature in the near future? This question is drawn nearer with an empirical data from the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) database. On the basis of systematic meta-analytic procedure with four statistical indicators, two types of research themes are reviled: 1) general and highly productive themes with no change in the trend and 2) rising themes. The most used descriptors in the publications are Foreign Countries, Teaching Methods, and Academic Achievement. The five most potential rising themes are Antisocial Behavior, Behavior Problems, Autism, Racial Differences, and Technology Uses in Education. Some radical chances have also occurred during the last 7 years in the volumes of research methodological themes. The theme Correlation indicating quantitative research has radically raised its volume after decades of declining trend. At the same time also the theme Qualitative Research has strengthen and more lately Mixed Methods has risen.

 


Andy Rehling & Nick Zienau
Intelligent Action Ltd., UK


Experience Building Social Capital in an Outer London Multi-Cultural Community

This is a case study of a 5 year project which has been informed by the idea that social cohesion in an 11-18 school is important for the success of the school and of the students, but also for a sustainable society in the London of the future. On the one hand the work was important in the immediate term so that a successful and happy school can exist in a diverse and dynamic community. This was seen as the key to enabling pupils to fulfil their potential in life. It was also a goal to ensure that the nearly 2000 pupils feel they are real partners in shaping the school for the future. In a sense it can also be seen as important form of social modelling for a future society in which the relations between different cultural and ethnic groups , social skills and attitudes are ways in which social capital can be accumulated. The paper will address the starting point , the goals and the outcomes of the project. Written jointly by the principal of the school and the process consultant who helped animate and guide the social capacity of the staff and students to transform the social relations and social contract within the school community. The authors will attempt to reflect their own beliefs and values / dilemmas and difficulties as they proceeded with the work. In this way they believe it will be possible to identify certain critical aspects of “ leadership for the future” which allow such projects to be successfully carried out. By leadership for the future they mean a kind of future-orientated approach which combines seeking improvement of immediate results with a real insight into the challenges and important issues that creating a sustainable future present.
 

Nick Zienau is a consultant who originally worked in London with challenging kids. He has worked as a consultant in organisations for 20 years an during that time has always kept active in developing schools in London while pursuing a varied international career.

 


Marja Nurmilaakso
University of Helsinki, marja.nurmilaakso@helsinki.fi

What Should Children Learn in Nursery and Primary Schools in Year 2030 - Opinions of Student Teachers

What should children learn in nursery and primary schools in year 2030 - opinions of student teachers Our world is changing fast, and so are daycarecentres and schools. Teachers and pupils must find new values in a wide range of pre-school education and school activities. Many of these have changed, or perhaps need to change. Some learning activities were simply unthinktable earlier, for example, exploring and analysing complex information by multimedia. In this study the research questions are the follows: 1) What should children learn in nursery and primary school in the year 2030? a) to use language fluently b) to master language and communication c) to work in groups and in one`s environment 2) How does one progress in learning a language and communicating in nursery and primary school? 3) What other skills children should learn? The research method was questionnaire, and the data was gathered in Oktober 2007. Altogether 76 student teachers answered. All studied at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Of the students, 24 were primary school, and 52 nursery school student teachers. The results were follows: the student teachers thought, it very important that a child be able to use language in a group to communicate and to state his/her own opinion (94.8%). A child should also enjoy communicating with other children (93.3%). The student teachers were the opinion that it would not be so important that children in 2030 speak many language (92%). It was also thought to be not important that children learn to read in preschool (68%). The student teachers felt that a child must be interested in reading (66.7%) and a child`s self-image should be positive (94.7%). The student teachers did not consider the use computers.

 

Marja Nurmilaakso is Doctor of Philosophy 2006. She is also psychologist and initially kindergarten teacher. Currently she works as a senior lecturer in University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Sciences of Education. Her selected publications include:
- doctoral thesis: Early Literacy Development in day-care centres.
- Reunamo, J. & Nurmilaakso, M. (2006) Language objectives in the Finnish preschool curriculum, in: A. Pipere (Ed.) Education and sustainable development: first steps toward changes (vol.1) (Daugavspils, Saule), 188-201.
- Reunamo, J. & Nurmilaakso, M. (2007) Vygotsky and agency in language development. In European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 15(3), 313-327.

 

 

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DAY 2:  Scientific track 1 (11:00-13:00)

Chair: Tuomo Kuosa, Finland Futures Research Centre


 

Ana Nuutinen
University of Helsinki, department of home economics and craft science, ana.nuutinen@helsinki.fi

Craft in Search for Future Fashion

My doctoral dissertation “Ahead. Tacit, implicit and explicit knowing in fashion forecasting” (Nuutinen 2004, in Finnish) tried to define the nature of the future oriented knowing of fashion designers, when the traditional activities of them have expanded to cover larger human action environment, to immaterial fields and to the areas of concept design and trend analyst. The design of this research remains the same, but the focus is in craft/hand-made processes in fashion industry. The data for the doctoral dissertation was gathered by interviewing three Finnish fashion designers. One designer works in a textile and fashion factory, the other in her own fashion design studio and the third in an office of a fashion marketing company. The different viewpoint and distance to coming fashion separate them, but craft/hand-made processes is the link between them. The first interviews will form the base for the new interviews of the same designers. The first interest of this study is to understand the role of craft/hand-made processes in search for future fashion styles and products. The second interest focuses on craft education. If craft/hand-made processes help designers to shape tomorrow´s fashion, how can education shape craft/hand-made processes for it ?

 

Doctor of Arts, University Lecturer of product design, Ana Nuutinen works in the University of Helsinki in the section of Craft Science and Textiles Teacher Education of the Department of Home Economics and Craft Science. Teaching of product design in the area of craft consists both designing and making of utility goods and ideating and making of textile art. In craft making there is going on a noticeable change from traditional craft: from making of utility goods to the expressive craft and textile art. This trend forms the basis to apply futures research into the theory of product design in order to broaden it and in order to develop the practices of craft and craft education. Behind the future oriented thinking lies Ana Nuutinen’s doctoral dissertation “Ahead. Tacit, implicit and explicit knowing in fashion forecasting” (2004, in Finnish).

 


Elina Hiltunen
Nokia Group

Teaching Futures Techniques Made Fun and Inspiring- Designing the Futuropoly Game Board

This presentation gives an overview of a new method of teaching futures techniques, Futuropoly. In this new kind of teaching technique the students are designing a game board for an imaginary game, Futuropoly, which is inspired by a well known board game Monopoly. The process starts with teachers’ lectures of key aspects of the futures studies; megatrends, trends, weak signals and wild cards. Also methods like scenario process, specially by using the futures tables are taught to the students. The design process of the game board starts by selecting a key theme and time perspective of the game. Students make 3-4 scenarios related to that timeline and the topic, and start to design the game board on one selected scenario. Then the students are listing wild cards and weak signals that are imitating the community chest and chance in the real Monopoly game. They also have to think about the physical (or virtual appearance ) of the game board, the tokens, monetary systems and various business concepts (imitating property) to match the scenario. This teaching method have been used in MBA training in Helsinki Business School and the results of this teaching process were very promising.

 


Gethin While
CRI-FI, University of Glamorgan Business School, UK, gwhile@yahoo.com

Lessons from the Regions – the FUTURREG Project 2005-2007 and innovative applications of futures tools across governmental organisations, business and higher education

This paper will provide an examination and analysis of the relevant outputs of the EU FUTURREG Project’s activities informing and transforming regional policies and development organisations through high quality futures tools and participatory processes with significant long-term impacts. The project began its work in July 2005, with a two and half year schedule of activities which formally ended in December 2007. Funded by INTERREG IIIC, an EU-funded Programme that helps Europe’s regions form partnerships to work together on common projects, it shared knowledge and experience. These partnerships enabled the 7 regions involved to develop new solutions to economic, social and environmental challenges. This paper will detail the outputs of the project - a common Futures Toolkit, including scenarios, Delphi, Horizon Scanning, visioning and futures forecasting for use in all EU regions; increased use of futures tools in association with other Foresight approaches within the regional policy-making system and specific applications of the futures toolkit to regional development issues and problems; increased capacity and the use of Foresight by a wide spectrum of actors at regional level through a managed learning process. Specific case studies of real time applications of the Futurreg futures toolkit within foresight exercises will be presented and analysed in depth at the Conference, with particular relevance to "Innovation and Learning in Strategy and Policy Environments" (Countryside Council for Wales, UK; Higher Education in Malta) & "Innovation, Research and Technology Sector-based work/clusters" (Footwear Industry and Agribusiness in La Rioja, Spain).

 

Project Manager at the Centre for Research in Futures & Innovation at Glamorgan University in Wales since June 2008, Gethin has over fifteen years experience in the successful conception, development and management of innovative and successful developmental programs and business services on behalf of leading national corporations, NGOs and public sector bodies. He holds a first class MA in Modern History fro the University of Oxford and an MPhil in Latin-American Studies from the University of Cambridge. Gethin is soon to start a PhD investigating specific examples of successful applications of Foresight and futures tools in the fields of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Disaster Planning comparatively in the UK and Japan. This builds on his experience working at the Welsh Development Agency as an inward investment executive dealing with Far Eastern clients and nearly 4 years spent living and working in Japan, a period which included an open studentship to the Environmental Studies Faculty of Hokkaido University to investigating Japanese technology clustering policy and initiatives in the early 1990s. He was previously Project Officer at the Observatory of Innovation, Cardiff University Business School (2006 – 2008), much if which was taken up with the EU INTERREG IIIC FUTURREG – Futures for Regional Development project. Gethin also has considerable expertise and knowledge of the creative industries derived from a lengthy career in broadcasting and audiovisual industrial support, planning and training. A qualified Prince2 Practitioner, he is also a fluent Welsh speaker, and has a good grasp of Spanish, French and Japanese.


 


Leena Jokinen
Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku School of Economics, leena.jokinen@tse.fi

New Perspectives on Future Competencies and Capabilities


The main aim of the presentation is to discuss critical perspectives on future competences and highlight the needs for development especially on adult education. The presentation reports the work of Nordic think-tank on future competences. The think-tank objective were: firstly, to form an image of the future society and work life. What are the most important competences of individuals, and what kinds of organisations are productive and sustainable in the Nordic context? Secondly, what are the structures and contexts where these future competences have a possibility to develop and flourish? Thirdly, how the Nordic culture can be the basis of competitive strategy and create unique frontrunner products and services in a global world? The working methods were to explore significant reports as well as other documents, to talk to national experts in different fields of society, and to organise a seminar, where experts and adult education practitioners discuss together. The final product of the project is a critical report, which points out the most significant dynamics on future competence creation and the role of adult education in it. The report can be downloaded from the web site.

 


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DAY 2:  Scientific track 2 (11:00-13:00)

Chair: Jari Kaivo-oja, Finland Futures Research Centre


 

Ruben Nelson
Foresight Canada, rubennelson@shaw.ca

Learning to Cooperative with Our Evolution: Reflections on the Root Societal Challenge in the 21st Century

The paper is a futures thought experiment – one that is intended to provoke personal and societal learning and innovative leadership. To set up the situation to be addressed in the paper, we shall first set out, but not argue for, the following four propositions – conclusions of my forty years of futures research: 1. Every civilization assumes as a major dimension of its view of itself and the world that in the future its essential identity will remain unchanged; that as a people they can be in the future essentially what they are today. Today, this is the official and politically correct public view. 2. No existing civilization has an organized and developed capacity to even explore, much less challenge the first conclusion. Everywhere, it is assumed that ""thinking outside the box""and ""sustainability"" never mean calling for or observing the evolution of one’s civilization into a fundamentally new form. This expectation is simply not on our agenda. 3. This essentially conservative view is consistent with what we have characterized as the ""dilemma of democracies"". 4. Nevertheless, ours is a rare hinge of history. The emerging character of the 21st Century is taking us off our inherited mental maps and business models into terra incognito; essential discontinuity will be the defining theme. It follows that it is both the case that: A. One of the deepest assumptions in which civilizations have been and are still grounded will no longer be true as the 21st Century unfolds. B. As of today, no society is preparing its people for the dislocation of its civilization, including the ability to see and grasp its unexpected opportunities. It follows that: 1. The longer this situation remains as it is, the greater the risk to human societies. The reason is that one’s lead time to develop coherent and appropriate responses diminishes with every passing year. 2. At some point in the 21st Century, some country will become the first, but not the last, to tackle this conundrum. 3. The truly interesting question is, “What might wise and innovative leaders do to enable their people, or at least a critical mass of their opinion leaders, to learn to see and cooperative with their own evolution as persons, a whole society and a civilization?” The bulk of the paper will explore this question by setting out: The criteria for success of such a project. What clearly will not work? What features might tend toward success? The design, elements and features of a potentially successful project – one that meets the criteria and actually has some hope of being successful.
 


Ruben Nelson: I fell into futures as an undergraduate in 1960. Since I have spent my life as a futures researcher and practitioner I am one of Canada’s pioneers of serious futures research. My passion is to explore and seek to understand the forces that have shaped and are now re-shaping our lives, our world and our future. My major research interest is in the long-term evolution of human civilizations, cultures and consciousness. My immediate interest is this question, ”Is the unspoken default view of Western societies justified, namely that we can become truly sustainable and humane by embracing and extending, rather than evolving and transforming, the consciousness and world-view we have developed over the last 800 or so years?” My research suggests that this is not the case; that our time is a hinge-point in history. My experience is that this fact is not yet recognized as being operationally significant. My judgement is that we are putting the human future at risk by using futures research in ways that do not face and explore the question of the need for and fact of societal transformation. My formal education is in philosophy, political theory and theology – both western and eastern. My clients are in every sector and region of Canadian society and at every level from Cabinet Offices and Corporate Board Rooms to church basements. Today, I am the only Canadian who is a Fellow of the World Business Academy, the World Academy for Art and Science and the Meridian Institute for Leadership, Governance, Change and the Future. I am also Executive Director of Foresight Canada.
 

 


Marjut Haussila
Sibelius Senior High School

 

Learning by ‘grooving’, navigating the emerging: school as a creative environment

 

The proposal that we should ”take hold of the future by means of making conscious choices” intrigues me. Discussing the line of thought and action by which I as a music educator have, in the past twelve years, gone about my work, supported by the likeminded colleagues and international networks that address questions of music, education, curriculum and management and organizations, I will explore some conscious choices and reflect upon the consequences.

 

“Conscious choices” points, e.g., to the work of Dewey, Bruner, Arendt, Foucault and Greene and suggest a careful reflexivity and an epistemology which adheres to pragmatism, phenomenology and critical school. The proposition aims beyond naïve assumptions about systems and management and teacher proof conditions and materials of learning and conceives of curriculum as a “complicated conversation” by which perspectives and identities complement traditional notions and designs. It rather suggests artful dealings in curriculum as well as an art in teaching and learning, as it highlights the role of education for innovation, and thereby social capital, leadership and entrepreneurship, and through them, sustained conditions of just, good and healthy life on earth.
 

What would such art suggest in practical terms? How could a music educator working in the context of Finnish upper secondary school curriculum seek to accomplish such goals? Adhering to collaborations with South African colleagues, I first study a recorded gig, discussing the notion of ‘groove’ as a musical, and aesthetic term which refers to something that ‘cooks’, i.e., works so artfully that the achievement can be sensed on the spot. With this understanding I will envision what a “cooking” kind of school could be. To reflect upon this, I will use writings collected from students who attended a jazz concert as part of their studies and compare their observations to the recent conclusions about leadership and managing talent.

 


Jyrki Suomala
Laurea University of Applied Sciences, jyrki.suomala@laurea.fi

Innovations, Imagination, and the Brain

The paper describes how the human brain forms creative representations. The description is based on three neurobehavioral models. Grush (2004) demonstrates that creative representations are based on the brain’s capability to emulate future events. This emulation process does not consist of expectation based on a linear interpretation of the individual’s past experiences; on the contrary, it looks for new opportunities and alternatives. Bechara (2005) argues that the brain forms representations of both the body and the environment. The interaction between these two types of representation in the brain is a source for the “if-then” neural pathway, which generates new alternatives for future events. Montague (2008) shows that after decision-making, the brain produces fictive signals. Based on these fictive signals, we evaluate the validity of our decisions spontaneously. After this process, we feel happiness or regret based on our personal experience of the fictive alternative. This fictive signalling process is a source of creativity in the human brain, argues Montague. The common feature of the previously described models is the idea that creativity is based on a personal experience of the subject’s own future possibilities. Creative representation is not realised in the creative process in the form of e.g. innovation, if the individual does not see him- or herself as an operator of creative representation. Traditional Western education puts weight on objectivity. However, new brain research emphasises that the creative process is based on subjective experiences and beliefs that have not yet been proven as correct.
 

Principal lecturer Jyrki Suomala (PhD) obtained his Ph.D. on Education in 1999 from the University of Jyväskylä. He is an expert in education and behavioral economics – particularly in problem-solving and innovation research. He has participated in various research projects funded by the Academy of Finland (UCRET project, 1996-2001; SOCA, 2003-2007) and the Ministry of Education (STEMA project). Suomala is the author of several publications in international peer-refereed journals. In addition, he has been a visiting researcher at the University of California at Santa Barbara on two occasions, for a total period of three years. He is currently studying subjective preferences in choice situation with fMRI methodology (Neuroeconomics) and he try to clarify, how human brain could produce creative representations.

 


Katriina Siivonen
Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku School of Economics, katriina.siivonen@tse.fi

Learning as a Cultural Process

Culture is a process of interaction, and different material and non-material elements are changing varying, emerging and disappearing in it. In this process people learn and create new non-material and material things whole the time. They also identify themselves to their physical and social environment. Identification allows them different kinds of environments for learning processes.

It is crucial to define the concept of culture in order to understand learning as cultural processes. I will argue, that culture is primarily a global process of anthroposemiosis. In this process the physical and the psychical parts of the world are in interaction, and they have an impact to each other.

Secondly, culture is a condensation of relatively constant cultural phenomena among interrelated people. In the mutual interaction process people give influences and they adapt them, and the process of anthroposemiosis develops with relative homogeneity. Learning and creativity are basic phenomena in this process. People create among others different, original cultures with some kind of boundaries and relatively constant own essences. On the same time, these cultures have an impact to every human being.

Thirdly, culture is a symbolic and clearly argued knowledge of the original essences of different cultures. On this level, cultures are “imagined communities”, which can give their character to different learning environments.

As an example I will use cultural processes in the archipelago area in Southwest Finland. Nature is there a strong element of learning processes and environments. It is allowed a position as an authority in learning processes unlike authorities from cities and mainland.

 

 

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DAY 2:  Scientific track 1 (15:40-17:30)

Chair: Leena Jokinen, Finland Futures Research Centre


 

Leonardo Angelini & Mauro Durando
Regione Piemonte, Department oif Education, Professional Training and Labour - Observatory on Labour Market, Italy, mauro.durando@regione.piemonte.it, leonardo.angelini@regione.piemonte.it

The Occupational Skill Needs Survey. The Approach of the Regione Piemonte

The first attempts to forecast the skill needs of the enterprises in Piemonte date back to the late 1980’s, with a methodology essentially qualitative that won the recognition of the Italian Ministry of Labour. Its main features are as follows:

  • it is carried out on a strictly sectoral basis;
  • a panel of experts identifies the occupational groups typical of the sector under observation, in relation to the current labour organization;
  • a questionnaire is made up on this basis and submitted to a sample of enterprises;
  • the results give the relative position of each occupational group according to four categories: critical, emerging, fragile and declining occupations.

The basic objectives concern the evaluation of the projects of vocational training courses, the planning of tertiary and advanced education and the provision of an up-to-date set of indicators to support institutional and individual choices. In 2007 a new cycle has started, with the establishment of a regional network made up of representatives of the institutions and of the social partners, in order to set up a permanent research activity. The first project has been a survey of 18 strategic sectors that should be completed within the summer of 2008. This new project aims as well to strengthen the link between the occupational groups identified and the standard occupational classifications and to explore the professional contents pertaining to each occupation, in terms of required competences and expected performances.

 


Maria Leńczuk
The Observatory for the Labour Market and the Education of the Malopolska Region, Regional Labour Office in Krakow, Poland, mlen@wup-krakow.pl

Didactic Challenges for the Future – How to Predict Future Skill Needs on the Labour Market (On Example of the Observatory for the Labour Market and the Education of the Malopolska Region - MORPiE)

The reason for implementing MORPiE (the project of the Regional Labour Office in Krakow, since 2006, co-financed by the EU from the ESF) has been the necessity of having an appropriate information as a basis of decision-making process in programming regional development and shaping employment policy. Preparing for the foresight we started two periodic surveys: “Career possibilities for graduates of secondary level vocational schools” and “Future needs of key branches of regional economy in Malopolska”. The reason for doing them is the information needs indicated by regional institutions involved in creating the education & labour market policy. We found good practices in this area both in Poland and abroad (in case of branches – we learned from Finland – TE-Centres in Oulu and in Turku, esp. Mr Jouni Martinnen). Organising both surveys we get complementary information about skills’ demand and supply on the regional labour market. In the second edition of researches we are implementing few changes, e.g. we encourage secondary schools to take part in collecting data about pupils and to use gained information to improve the quality and directions of education and vocational training. Information from both surveys is used i.a. to direct support from ESF in order to improve the effectiveness of funds’ intervention in Malopolska. As our project was a pilotage in Poland, we seek for partners abroad to improve the quality of our work. With partners from Finland and Italy we plan to organise the network for cooperation in the field of foresight.

 

Maria Leńczuk, Research Specialist. Master of Arts in Sociology, graduate of Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. Has got experience on creating and implementing development strategies in several Polish youth nongovernmental organisations operating in the field of education. In the Observatory for the Labour Market and Education of the Malopolska Region she is responsible for programming and monitoring surveys, preparing analyses and promoting research findings. Her interests are focused on employers demands on professions and qualifications. For more about The Observatory for the Labour Market and Education of the Malopolska Region see www.obserwatorium.malopolska.pl/en

 



Jouni Marttinen
Employment and Economic Development Centre for Southwest Finland, jouni.marttinen@te-keskus.fi

Short Term Activities Studying the Needs of Workforce and Training at Local and Regional Labour Market in Finland

The Employment and Economic Development Centres (TE-Centres) are state owned regional offices in Finland. The tasks of these offices are to promote SMEs and technological development of enterprises, to implement regional labour polices, to plan and organise adult training and to promote farming, fisheries and rural enterprise activities.

Almost all the 15 TE-centres are implementing short term studies focusing the needs of workforce and training in the local and regional labour market. The process of these studies consists of three stages: 1) interviews of enterprises implemented by the employment offices, 2) an expert panel, which is analyzing the results of the interviews and producing SWOT-analysis and 3) a delfoi - questionnaire of the interviewed enterprises and members of the expert panel.

In the TE-Centre for Southwest Finland some stages of this process has been outscored. The themes of the interviews are:

  • Changes in use of workforce – increases/decreases by profession (3 classification levels)
  • Recruiting problems (3 classification levels)
  • Training requirements for professions and job assignments (3 classification levels)
  • Changes in core professions and job content (3 classification levels)
  • Age distribution and retirement rate of personnel
  • Economic situation now and in one year
  • Training needs and presentations to educational institutions
  • Networking and sub-contracting needs and new business ideas
  • Prospects for export
  • Open comments

In my presentation I’ll discuss about this process studying the needs in the labour market and the experiences in Southwest Finland. Also I’ll concentrate to the challenges in developing the process so that it would have better connections to the decision making.

 



Metsämuuronen J., Kuosa T. & Laukkanen R.
The Finnish National Board of Education, jari.metsamuuronen@oph.fi

Sustainable Leadership and Future-oriented Decision Making in the Educational Governance – a Finnish case

During the new millennium the Finnish educational system has faced a new challenge: how to explain the glorious PISA results produced with narrow variance between the schools, with average national costs and relatively efficient on the basis of passing times. The explanations for this issue can be searched in many different ways. One possible approach is to focus on the basic structures of Finland’s schooling system in the European context. Another way is to focus on the strengths of the futures oriented sustainable leadership in Finland’s educational governance. The sustainable leadership refers to a long history of several future-oriented decisions and actions, such as changing the system to uniform, high demanding education to all, strategic decisions concerning the information society, as well as some other great political decisions concerning education. Some relevant prerequisite of leading to an effective changing process are discussed and two cases as examples of recent future-oriented actions in the Finnish educational governance are given. The first case is a visionary oriented policy planning project “Critical Action Scenarios” which was executed in The Finnish National Board of Education. The second one is a project Liberal education and competence in labour markets 2030, which was executed under the supervising of Finland’s Ministry of Education.

 

 

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DAY 2:  Scientific track 2 (15:40-17:30)

Chair: Katriina Siivonen, Finland Futures Research Centre


 

Emma Vironmäki
Turku School of Economics, emma.vironmaki@tse.fi

Trouble ahead? Universities’ third task and business education


In Finland, there is an ongoing discussion about the third task of universities. The existing two tasks are research and education based on research. The third task is societal relevance or impact. In university-level business education, which is the focus in this paper, the third task traditionally lies within contacts with business and industry.

 

Uniting theory and practice in an academic setting, however, is not simple. Some marketing professors (whose interviews are the primary source of data) seek continuous contacts with business industry, some contribute more to the academic community. Some want to teach students to think critically, some see as their task to teach them to do something.

 

The paper presents a possible model for uniting the different aspects: Contributions to business world, academic community and students. Nevertheless, there are some difficulties within the Finnish academic culture that might pose problems for the third task of universities even in business studies:


1. There are a lot of resources within universities that are practically wasted because there is no up-to-date system to follow what is done and where.
2. The current research policy of short-term projects means that researchers hop from project to project, and spend more time in securing future financing than the work itself. Cumulative knowledge, essential quality of academic research, hence fails to materialize.
3. From the point of view of the surrounding society universities are still closed entities: Disciplines, faculties and institutions might have names that communicate nothing to the outside world. Experts are hard to find (cf. point 1).
4. Collaboration between different units in universities is difficult and practically non-existent.
 


Prof., Dr. Marc Vermeulen
Academic director Management of Education, TiasNimbas Business School, The Netherlands
 

Yenta-nomics: Matchmaking as a Crucial Competence


Societies in the western part of the world are moving in a rapid pace to networked configurations of labour and learning (Castells a.o.). We could label this new configuration as yenta-nomic. Yenta was the old Jewish lady in the musical ‘Fiddler on the Roof’ who made matches in the small 19th century Russian village. All people in the village where asking her for the perfect match (between man and woman, between buyer and seller etc.) and Yenta would arrange it. Thus her position was very central because her matchmaking provided a high added value to the village. We can use this metaphor to describe modernization of both working and learning in western societies. In both systems, and in the interaction between them, the quest for the perfect match becomes essential and provides the competitive advantage that gives a ticket to strong economic (and social) development.

In our paper we will elaborate on the concept of adding value through match making in the connectivity between labour and learning. First we will analyse the social and economic systems in western societies on how added value emerges from match-making. Next we will elaborate on the consequences for the development of competences necessary to participate in this yenta-nomic economic and social systems. A crucial characteristic of networks is their fragile balanced system of relation that may be disturbed easily. Disruptions because of a lack of trust, a lack of quality or of learning might cause entire networks to collapse and thus provide high social risks and costs. In other words, institutions that improves trust, quality and learning in networks will generate high added value both in a positive way (e.g. developing new ideas for products and services) and in a negative way (reducing risk of disruption and fragmentation).
 


Petri Tapio, Johanna Kohl, Sarianne Tikkanen* & Sofi Salonen
Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku School of Economics, petri.tapio@tse.fi
* Department of Social Policy, University of Helsinki, Finland

 

University Culture – Quo Vadis? Prospects of Environmental Science-Policy Interface in Finland up to 2020

Is the university moving from an autonomous and hierarchical Temple of knowledge to an open, client-oriented Bazaar? Or are we heading from an autonomous and open Oasis of free thinking to a production-based Factory? A Delphi study consisting of interviews with environmental experts in Finland suggests that university culture operated in the Temple manner in 1990 and had moved towards the Factory by 2005. The study also reports the environmental experts’ views of the probable and preferred future development up to 2020. We grouped the views with cluster analysis of the responses. The images of the future differ strongly, since one cluster of responses projects the strengthening of the Factory mode, three clusters envision the Bazaar and two the Oasis. The paper is concluded by making a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of the different university cultures. We conclude that environmentally best practices are generated in the borderline between the Bazaar and the Oasis.


 

Figure. Out of the Temple but in which direction? The initial point of each arrow corresponds the year of 1990, the middle point 2005 and the end point 2020.
 



Wilson Winnitoy
Foresight Canada, prospice@telus.net

Public Education: Looking Beyond Reform

This paper is about a new approach to learning and our next public education system. It is about the consequences of reforming current school systems while ignoring interesting and important dynamics that are pointing to the school system we need to carry us forward into the rest of the century. The ideas presented arise from the author’s several decades of experience as a teacher, administrator and school system strategic planner and his analysis of the change drivers and the opportunities for system redesign that point to a fundamentally new public education system. The paper examines the urgency and sense of possibility that now surrounds this most important societal project. It explores how new systems will emerge to support learning as distinct from schooling. Their central purpose will be to ensure that learners develop the capacity to be reflexively self-conscious and self-managing learners. In addition, they will ensure that learners steadily increase their capacity to design their own learning in partnership with family, community, information and communication technologies, and learning support systems based in schools. The paper then presents an extended scenario of such a learning support system. It addresses challenges such as designing effective family and community based learning support systems, changing the role of teachers to “learnists,” and handling accountability requirements. It also looks at learning exchanges for adult learners and new approaches to governance and leadership.

NOTE: A previous version of this paper appeared in the Pari Center for New Learning’s website at www.paricenter.com.
 

 


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